GST Offences, Penalties and Appeals


There are 21 offenses under GST. We have mentioned a few here. For the entire list of 21 offenses please go to our main article on offenses.

The major offenses under GST are:

1. Not registering under GST, even though required by law. (Read our article for the list of those who have to register mandatorily under GST)
2. Supply of any goods/services without any invoice or issuing a false invoice.
3. The issue of invoices by a taxable person using the GSTIN of another bona fide taxpayer.
4. Submission of false information while registering under GST.
5. Submission of fake financial records/documents or files, or fake returns to evade tax.
6. Obtaining refunds by fraud.
7. Deliberate suppression of sales to evade tax.
8. Opting for composition scheme even though a taxpayer is ineligible.

GST penalties & Approvals


If any of the offenses are committed then a penalty will have to be paid under GST. The principles on which these penalties are based are also mentioned by law.

For late filing

Late filing attracts penalty called late fee. The late fee is Rs. 100 per day per Act. So it is 100 under CGST & 100 under SGST. Total will be Rs. 200/day. The maximum is Rs. 5,000. There is no late fee on IGST in case of delayed filing.

Along with late fee, interest has to be paid at 18% per annum. It has to be calculated by the taxpayer on the tax to be paid. The time period will be from the next day of filing to the date of payment.

For not filing

If you don’t file any GST return then subsequent returns cannot be filed. For example, if GSTR-2 return of August is not filed then the next return GSTR-3 and subsequent returns of September cannot be filed. Hence, late filing of GST return will have a cascading effect leading to heavy fines and penalty (see below).

For the 21 offenses with no intention of fraud or tax evasion

An offender not paying tax or making short payments must pay a penalty of 10% of the tax amount due subject to a minimum of Rs. 10,000.

Consider — in case tax has not been paid or a short payment is made, a minimum penalty of Rs 10,000 has to be paid. The maximum penalty is 10% of the tax unpaid.

For the 21 offenses with the intention of fraud or tax evasion

An offender has to pay a penalty amount of tax evaded/short deducted etc., i.e., 100% penalty, subject to a minimum of Rs. 10,000.

Additional penalties as follows-

Tax amount involved 100-200 lakhs 200-500 lakhs Above 500 lakhs
Jail term Upto 1 year Upto 3 years Upto 5 year
Fine In all three cases

Cases of fraud also face penalties, prosecution, and arrest.

Inspection Under GST

The Joint Commissioner of SGST/CGST (or a higher officer) may have reasons to believe that in order to evade tax, a person has suppressed any transaction or claimed excess input tax credit etc. Then the Joint Commissioner can authorize any other officer of CGST/SGST (in writing) to inspect places of business of the suspected evader.

Search & Seizure Under GST

The Joint Commissioner of SGST/CGST can order for a search. He will order a search on the basis of results of inspection (or other reason) if he has reasons to believe –

There are goods which might be confiscated
Any documents or books or other things which are hidden somewhere. Such items can be useful during proceedings.
Such incriminating goods and documents can be seized.

Goods in Transit

The person in charge of a vehicle carrying goods exceeding Rs. 50,000 is required to carry the following documents:

Invoice or bill of supply or delivery challan
Copy of e-way bill (hard copy or via RFID)
The proper officer has the power to intercept goods in transit and inspect the goods and the documents.

If the goods are in contravention to the GST Act then the goods, related documents, and the vehicle carrying them will be seized. The goods will be released only on payment of tax and penalty.

Before confiscating the goods, the tax officer shall give an option of paying a fine instead of confiscation.

Compounding of Offences Under GST

Compounding of offenses is a shortcut method to avoid litigation. In case of prosecution for an offense in a criminal court, the accused has to appear before the Magistrate at every hearing through an advocate. This becomes expensive and time-consuming.

In compounding, the accused is not required to appear personally and can be discharged on payment of compounding fee which cannot be more than the maximum fine as applicable under GST.

Compounding will save time and money. However, compounding under GST is not available for cases where the value involved exceeds 1 crore.

Prosecution Under GST

The prosecution is conducting of legal proceedings against someone in respect of a criminal charge.

A person committing an offense with the deliberate intention of fraud, becomes liable to prosecution under GST, i.e., face criminal charges. A few examples of these offenses are-

1. Issue of an invoice without supplying any goods/services- thus taking input credit or refund by fraud
2. Obtaining refund of any CGST/SGST by fraud.
3. Submitting fake financial records/documents or files, and fake returns to evade tax.
4. Helping another person to commit fraud under GST.

Arrest Under GST

If the Commissioner of CGST/SGST believes a person has committed a certain offense he can be arrested under GST by any authorized CGST/SGST officer (click here for the list of offenses for which one can be arrested).

The arrested person will be informed of the grounds for his arrest. He will appear before the magistrate within 24 hours in case of a cognizable offense (Cognizable offenses are those where the police can arrest a person without an arrest warrant. They are serious crimes like murder, robbery, counterfeiting).


A person unhappy with any decision or order passed against him under GST can appeal against such decision.

The first appeal against an order by an adjudicating authority goes to the First Appellate Authority.

If the taxpayer is not happy with the decision of the First Appellate Authority they can appeal to the National Appellate Tribunal, then to the High Court, and finally to the Supreme Court.


To avoid the long process of appeal and litigation, a taxpayer may request for the advance ruling under GST. The taxpayer asks for clarification from GST authorities on GST treatment before starting the proposed activity. The tax authority gives a written decision (called advance ruling) to the applicant on the query.

Treatment of Advance Received under GST

The rules for the time of supply under GST plays a very important role in determining when to pay tax for a transaction.

The general rule for time of supply for goods is earliest of the following –

1. Date of issue of invoice

2. Date of receipt of payment/advance

3. Date on which invoice should be issued

The second point above is receipt of advance. This means that if the advance is received before the issue of invoice the time of supply would be the date of receipt of advance.

Thus taxpayer receiving advance must pay GST on the money received.

What is a taxpayer supposed when an advance is received?

A taxpayer has to take the following actions on receipt of advance:

1. Issue a Receipt Voucher:

The supplier has to issue a receipt voucher to the person paying advance. The receipt voucher will contain details like amount of advance, the rate of tax applicable, description of goods or services, etc.

2. Calculate Tax on Advance Received:

You have to calculate tax on advance and pay tax while filing the return for the month.

The advance received should be grossed up. This means that advance received is considered inclusive of GST.

When the rate of tax cannot be determined during receipt of advance GST @ 18% has to be charged.

Also if the point of sale cannot be ascertained the advance is considered as interstate supply and IGST has to be paid.

Let us understand the treatment of advance under GST using an example:

Mr. A entered into a contract of supplying goods worth Rs 10,00,000 by 20th February.

The total invoice value along with GST @ 18% is Rs 11,80,000.

He received an advance of Rs 4,00,000 on 10th January and balance payment of Rs 7,80,000 on 20th February. The invoice was also raised on 20th February.
Here is how you will calculate tax:
advance received – part 1

It is very important to note here that the taxpayer paying advance is not eligible to claim ITC on advance paid. The taxpayer can claim ITC on advance paid only on receipt of goods or services.

This means that in the above example recipient will be eligible to claim ITC on an advance in February (goods are received on 20th February).

3. Incorporate advance received in GSTR 1

Any advance received by a taxpayer for which invoice is not issued should be mentioned in Pt.11A of GSTR 1.

Details of each advance need not be given, A cumulative figure of all the advances received has to be provided.

The advance should be first segregated into Interstate and intrastate advances.

The gross figure of advances received should be mentioned under Gross Advance Received/ Adjusted.

After this, the tax payable i.e. CGST and SGST in case of intrastate and IGST in case of interstate advances should be stated.

This tax on advance is added to the tax liability of the supplier.

GST impact on the infrastructure sector

The infrastructure sector is the backbone of the Indian economy. The government has been making efforts to boost the sector through various schemes and incentives.

According to the government, total infrastructure spending is expected to be about 10% of GDP (gross domestic product) during the 12th Five-Year Plan (2012–17), up from 7.6% during the previous Plan. A total of 6,604km has been constructed out of the 15,000km target set for national highways in 2016-17, says the ministry of road transport and highways. The Airports Authority of India plans to develop city-side infrastructure at 13 regional airports, with help from private entities for building of hotels, car parks and other facilities. Significant allocations have been made to power, urban development and inland waterways sectors. The above initiatives show the firm commitment of the government to infrastructure.

Given this, the recent introduction of the goods and services tax (GST) could have significant impact in terms of spending on infrastructure.

In the pre-GST era, there was dichotomy in the applicable indirect tax regime relevant to infrastructure. While Central laws provided exemptions and concessions, state VAT (value-added tax) and entry tax laws were applicable to goods procured. In addition, the cascading effect of Central and state indirect taxes was a concern, due to a high base for levy of respective taxes and a restrictive credit mechanism. There was also litigation at the Central and state levels on classification of contracts, valuation, jurisdiction of state on inter-state works contracts and other issues.

GST being a concurrent tax on supply of goods and services is expected to bring in predictability for infrastructure projects. There are some changes that would have an impact on indirect taxation—taxability of works contracts being one. As works contracts are limited to only immovable properties, turnkey contracts which do not result in immovable property would now be treated as composite supplies. Further, valuation of goods and services in works contracts, which has typically sparked differences between Central and state indirect tax authorities, would now be put to rest with the legislation laying down unambiguously that works contracts would be regarded as supply of services. Other contracts which do not result in immovable property could be regarded as composite supplies, and depending on the principal supply, tax liability would arise either as a supply of goods or services.

While there is apprehension that a flat GST rate of 18% would lead to increased incidence on infrastructure projects, availability of input tax credits would neutralize such concerns. Thus, contractors and suppliers could look forward to a simpler and efficient tax regime.

For project owners, the new legislation may not lead to a conducive future. Credit restrictions on works contracts resulting in an immovable property coupled with increase in GST rates could increase cost outlay. Already, exemptions and concessions to infrastructure have been completely withdrawn. This could also lead to increased working capital requirements. Project cost could rise due to increased burden of indirect taxes.

Power is an important component of infrastructure. Electricity being outside the purview of GST, power generation companies would continue to have indirect taxes as a significant cost factor. Further, an increase in rate of services and withdrawal of exemptions and concessions for power projects is expected to have an impact on power companies.

Similarly, withdrawal of exemptions for road, water supply and sewerage projects sponsored by government and local authorities is expected to increase government spend. However, availability of higher pool of input tax credit in the hands of the contractors could help neutralize such increases. So introduction of GST seems to be a mixed bag for the infra sector—predictability and efficiency being the key advantages, while non-inclusion of sub-sectors, higher rate and certain restrictions are negatives.

On direct taxes, the government intends to bring down the corporate tax rate in a phased manner and correspondingly phase out profit-linked tax incentives.

While most such tax incentives are phased out from 1 April, the industry is yet to witness an impactful reduction. So far, the reduction in the base corporate tax rate from 30% to 25% is for companies with revenue up to Rs50 crore in financial year 2015-16. Infrastructure requires considerable investment and it is likely that it may not be the beneficiary of reduced corporate tax rate. Also, as gestation is high, it is unlikely to generate enough profit in the initial years to absorb compulsory depreciation charge under the Income Tax Act. Consequently, there could be incidence of minimum alternate tax (MAT) of approximately 18.5%, on the book profit.

Industry has been demanding withdrawal of MAT, and the finance minister had acknowledged this demand, although there has been no relief so far. The only respite has been to allow set-off of MAT paid against future tax liability for 15 years as against 10 years. The intent and willingness of the current government to go the extra mile for overall growth, has been well received. With time, industry expects more clarity in GST and a reduction in corporate tax rate to make up for withdrawal of direct tax incentives. These measures will propel much-needed growth for India’s infrastructure.
Government has revised the GST rate from 18% to 12% on contracts to Govt vide notification CBEC No 20/2017 dt 22.08.2017.This rate is applicable for own going and new contracts.
1.Construction of building 18% (9+9)
2.Composite supply of works contractWorks contract 18% (9+9)
3.Do–to Govt/Local authority/authority 12% (6+6)

Notification No. 20/2017-Central Tax (Rate), the 22nd August, 2017

22nd GST Council Meeting

The 22nd GST Council Meeting was held at New Delhi on the 6th of October 2017. In the meeting, various decisions and changes pertaining to GST return filing, composition scheme, GST rates have been announced. The various measures announced in the 22nd GST Council will tremendously improve ease of compliance for SMEs. In this article, we summarise the key decisions made in the 22nd GST Council Meeting.

GST Return Filing

All regular taxpayers registered under GST were currently required to file 4 GST returns every month namely GSTR 3B, GSTR 1, GSTR 2 and GSTR 3. Filing 4 GST returns a month and maintaining GST compliance was a major burden for small businesses that have limited resources. Hence, to reduce the compliance burden for small businesses and improve ease of doing business, a decision was taken to reduce the number of GST returns for small businesses.

GST Return Filing for SMEs

Small and medium enterprises (SMEs) with an annual aggregate turnover of less than Rs.1.5 crores will no longer be required to file GSTR 1, GSTR 2 and GSTR 3 return every month. Instead, SMEs will be allowed to file quarterly GST returns and make quarterly GST payments, whether or not enrolled under the GST composition scheme.

SMEs will be allowed to file quarterly GST returns starting from the October – December 2017 quarter. For now, all regular taxpayers will be required to file monthly GSTR 1, GSTR 2, GSTR 3 and GSTR 3B return for the months of July, August and September 2017. The due date for July 2017 GSTR 1 return, GSTR 2 return and GSTR 3 return has been announced. The due dates for August and September GSTR 1, GSTR 2 and GSTR 3 returns will be announced shortly.

GST Return Filing for Businesses with Over Rs.1.5 Crore Turnover

All persons having GST registration with a turnover of more than Rs.1.5 crore per year will be required to file monthly GST returns in form GSTR 1, GSTR 2 and GSTR 3. GSTR 3B will have to be filed by all taxpayers for the months of July to December 2017, irrespective of annual aggregate turnover.

GST Registration

GST registration was earlier mandatorily required for any person who undertook inter-state (selling goods or services from one state to another state) irrespective of aggregate annual turnover. In the 22nd GST Council, it has been decided to exempt service providers from this criteria. Hence, service providers will now be allowed to undertake inter-state sales of upto Rs.20 lakhs without obtaining GST registration.

It is important to note that only service providers have been provided this exception. Any person supply goods will still be required to obtain GST registration mandatorily, if they undertake inter-state sales.

Reverse Charge Mechanism Suspended

The 22nd GST Council has decided to suspend the GST reverse charge mechanism. Under reverse charge, the recipient of a service is required to pay GST on behalf of the supplier.  Sub-section (4) of section 9 of the CGST Act, 2017 pertains to GST reverse charge and is reproduced below for reference:

“The central tax in respect of the supply of taxable goods or services or both by a supplier, who is not registered, to a registered person shall be paid by such person on reverse charge basis as the recipient and all the provisions of this Act shall apply to such recipient as if he is the person liable for paying the tax in relation to the supply of such goods or services or both.”

Since, registered taxpayers were required to pay GST on reverse charge basis when they purchased from an unregistered person (Most times a micro or small business), many registered business stopped transacting with micro and small businesses. Hence, the GST Council has decided to suspend the reverse charge mechanism. Now, registered taxpayers can purchase from unregistered persons without having to pay GST on reverse charge basis. This measure will provide a major boost to micro, small and medium businesses.

GST on Advances Received NOT Required for SMEs

As per GST rules, whenever a taxable person receives advance, an advance receipt voucher must be issued and the GST on the advance received must be remitted to the Government. In case supply was later not provided and refund of advance was provided to the customer, then the supplier would have to claim refund. This caused tremendous difficulty for small and medium businesses.

As per the decision of 22nd GST Council, it has now been decided that taxpayers having annual aggregate turnover up to Rs. 1.5 crores will not be required to pay GST at the time of receipt of advances on account of supply of goods. The GST on such advance received will be payable only when the supply of goods is made.

Transportation of Goods by GTA

Goods Transport Agency were not extending services to unregistered persons and were in many cases requesting GSTIN for transporting goods. The GST Council in the 22nd meeting has clarified that GTAs will not need any GSTIN for providing transportation services, thereby removing the hardship faced by SMEs.

GST Composition Scheme

The GST Composition Scheme can be availed by SME taxpayers to reduce compliance and tax burden. The 22nd GST Council has decided to form a Group of Ministers (GoM) to examine measures to make the composition scheme more attractive for SMEs.

Further, entities with an aggregate turnover of upto Rs.75 lakhs were only eligible for enrolling under the GST Composition Scheme. The 22nd GST Council has decided to increase the aggregate turnover to Rs.1 crore.The aggregate turnover threshold for special category States, except Jammu & Kashmir and Uttarakhand, has also been increased to Rs. 75 lacs from Rs. 50 lacs. The turnover threshold for Jammu & Kashmir and Uttarakhand has been fixed at Rs. 1 crore.  With the increase in aggregate turnover threshold, more SMEs will now be eligible for enrolment under the GST Composition Scheme.

Due Date for Enrolling under GST Composition Scheme Extended

The due date for enrolling under the increased threshold has been made available to both migrated and new taxpayers up to 31.03.2018. Also, once a business has enrolled under the Composition Scheme, the scheme will become operational from the 1st date of the succeeding date.

Due Date of first GSTR 4 Return for Composition Scheme Dealers Extended

The due date for filing GSTR 4 return for July to September 2017 by taxpayers registered under  composition scheme has been extended to 15.11.2017. Also entities opting for composition scheme will have to now file GSTR 4 return only for that portion of the quarter from when the scheme becomes operational and can file returns as a normal taxpayer for the preceding tax period.

Implementation of TDS and TCS Provisions Postponed

TDS and TCS provisions of the GST is applicable to certain Government Department and E-Commerce Operators. To help the taxpayer ecosystem gradually absorb the changes in the indirect tax regime, the Government has decided to postpone the TDS/TCS registration and operationalisation to 31st March 2018.

E-Way Bill Implementation Postponed


As per E-Way bill rules, any transportation of goods with a value of more than Rs.50,000 would require an e-way bill. The e-way bill rules were earlier supposed to be implemented before December 2017. The GST Council has now decided to postpone the implementation of e-way bill provisions and rules to 1st January 2018. Hence, w-way bill rules will be operationalised in a staggered manner across India from 1st January 2018 to 1st April 2018.